HIF-1 alpha (HIF1A) is a nuclear protein involved in mammalian oxygen homeostasis. This occurs as a posttranslational modification by prolyl hydroxylation. The HIF1 complex consists of two subunits, HIF-1α and HIF-1β, which are basic helix-loop-helix proteins of the PAS (Per, ARNT, Sim) family. The widely expressed HIF-1α is typically degraded rapidly in normoxic cells by the ubiquitin/proteasomal pathway. Both hypoxic conditions and chemical hydroxylase inhibitors (such as desferrioxamine and cobalt) inhibit HIF-1α degradation and lead to its stabilization. In addition, HIF-1α can be induced in an oxygen-independent manner by various cytokines through the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway.